Analyzing the dynamic evolution and regional differences of the level of high‐quality economic and social development based on the perspective of long time can be beneficial for informing the effect of the economy in China. This study builds a development evaluation index system oriented to high‐quality economic and social development in five directions. To deepen the analysis, TOPSIS entropy is used to measure the level of economic and social development of 31 provinces in China from 2000 to 2019, considering the temporal characteristics and evolution laws of four regions. Dagum’s Gini coefficient method is also applied to measure regional differences and discover driving factors. There are three key results. First, the comprehensive development index runs well; however, the index of economic momentum, innovation ability, and safety assurance differ significantly. There is obvious path dependence, demonstrating a spatial gradient, with development that is high in the east, moderate in the central part, and low in the west. Second, the trend of the comprehensive development index of each province is gratifying, but there are obvious differences in the three dimensions of economic momentum, innovation ability, and security index. Third, the overall development coordination of the four regions is weak—that is, the levels of economic and social development oriented to high‐quality intensified differentiation; it will be difficult to close the regional gap in the short term, given the development heterogeneity among regions. To promote the formation of a new, balanced pattern of regional development of high quality with complementary advantages, the four regions should be targeted in a double cycle of implementing regional development strategies and enhancing development coordination. Attention should also be paid to the growth pole function of advanced regions, complementing the advantages of other regions, and ultimately promoting high‐quality development jointly.