Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important part of aquatic ecosystems and plays a key role in the biogeochemical cycle. In this study, CDOM absorption spectrum curves and water quality parameters from 30 sampling sites in the wetlands of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province, China, were collected in October 2016. The optical absorption characteristics and spatial distribution of CDOM, the correlation between the absorption coefficient of CDOM at a wavelength of 355 nm (ag(355)), and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were analyzed. Spectral characteristic parameters—namely, E2/E3 (the ratio of the CDOM absorption coefficient at a wavelength of 250 nm to the CDOM absorption coefficient at a wavelength of 365 nm), SUVA254 (the ratio of the CDOM absorption coefficient at a wavelength of 254 nm to the DOC concentration), and spectral slopes—were used to infer the composition and sources of CDOM in the Poyang Lake wetlands. The results showed the following: (1) the CDOM absorption spectrum of water of the Poyang Lake wetlands presented significant spatial variation, showing a trend of south > west > north > east; (2) there was a strong linear correlation between the CDOM absorption coefficient and the DOC concentration in the water of the Poyang Lake wetlands (ag(355) = 1.075DOC–0.659 (r2 = 0.723, p < 0.001, n = 30)); (3) the analysis of the spectral characteristic parameters E2/E3, SUVA254, and spectral slopes showed that the CDOM in the Poyang Lake wetlands has relatively high aromaticity and molecular weight, which were shown to be mainly affected by terrestrial inputs. The results showed that the molecular weight and aromaticity of CDOM were higher in the south of the lake than in other parts.